1. Gain a general view of the problems debated in contemporary epistemology.
2. Relate the problems of knowledge to current epistemology.
3. Understand the fundamental questions of the relationship between philosophy and the various sciences.


General characterization





Responsible teacher

Nuno Carlos da Silva Carvalho Costa Venturinha


Weekly - 4

Total - 168

Teaching language





Parte 1

FREGE, G. (1988) Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik: Eine logisch mathematische Untersuchung über den Begriff der Zahl, reim. Hamburg: Felix Meiner; (1992) Os Fundamentos da Aritmética (tr. A. Zilhão). Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda. [§§ 3, 5, 12, 26, 27, 88, 89]

HUSSERL, E. (1975) Logische Untersuchungen, vol. 1 – Prolegomena zur reinen Logik: Husserliana, vol. 18. Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff; (2005) Investigações Lógicas, vol. 1 – Prolegómenos à Lógica Pura: Obras de Edmund Husserl (tr. D. Ferrer). Lisboa: Centro de Filosofia da Universidade de Lisboa. [Cap. VII, § 40]

KANT, I. (1911) Kritik der reinen Vernunft: Kant's gesammelte Schriften, vol. 3. Berlin: Georg Reimer; (1985) Crítica da Razão Pura (tr. M. P. dos Santos & A. F. Morujão). Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. [Pt. II, Cap. II, Sec. 3]

KANT, I. (1923) Logik: Kant's gesammelte Schriften, vol. 9, 1-150. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter; (2009) Lógica (tr. A. Morão). Lisboa: Texto & Grafia. [Int., Caps. IX-X]

RUSSELL, B. (1912) The Problems of Philosophy. London: Williams & Norgate; (2008) Os Problemas da Filosofia (tr. D. Murcho). Lisboa: Edições 70. [Cap. V]

WITTGENSTEIN, L. (1922, 1933) Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (tr. C. K. Ogden). London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.; (1987) Tratado Lógico-Filosófico (tr. M. S. Lourenço). In Tratado Lógico-Filosófico – Investigações Filosóficas, 1-158. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. [Props. 4-4.128, 5.6-5.641]

WITTGENSTEIN, L. (1979) Notes on Logic. In Notebooks 1914-1916, 93-107. Oxford: Basil Blackwell; (2004) Notas sobre Lógica (tr. J. Proença). In Cadernos 1914-1916, 137-157. Lisboa: Edições 70.

Parte 2

DeROSE, K. (1995) Solving the Skeptical Problem. The Philosophical Review 104: 1-52; reim. in DeRose, K. (2017) The Appearance of Ignorance: Knowledge, Skepticism, and Context, vol. 2, 1-38. Oxford: Oxford University Press; (2014) Resolvendo o problema cético (tr. L. H. Marques Segundo). Fundamento 9: 61-105.

DRETSKE, F. I. (1970) Epistemic Operators. The Journal of Philosophy 67: 1007-1023; reim. in Dretske, F. I. (2000) Perception, Knowledge, and Belief: Selected Essays, 30-47. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; (2009) Operadores epistêmicos (tr. L. F. Munaretti da Rosa). Intuitio 2: 400-418.

GETTIER, E. L. (1963) Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? Analysis 23: 121-123; (2005) É a crença verdadeira justificada conhecimento? (tr. C. Teixeira). Crítica, https://criticanarede.com/epi_gettier.html.

LEWIS, D. K. (1996) Elusive Knowledge. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 74: 549-567; reim. in Lewis, D. K. (1999) Papers in Metaphysics and Epistemology, 418-445. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; (2012) Conhecimento esquivo (tr. S. R. N. Miranda). Crítica, https://criticanarede.com/esquivo.html.

PRITCHARD, D. (2018) Epistemological Disjunctivism and the Biscopic Treatment of Radical Scepticism. In V. Mitova (ed.) The Factive Turn in Epistemology, 15-31. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; (2019) Disjuntivismo epistemológico e o tratamento biscopic do ceticismo radical (tr. E. M. de Carvalho). Sképsis 19: 94-115.

QUINE, W. V. O. (1969) Epistemology Naturalized. In Ontological Relativity and Other Essays, 69-90. New York: Columbia University Press; (1991) A epistemologia naturalizada (tr. M. M. Carrilho). In M. M. Carrilho (ed.) Epistemologia: Posições e Críticas, 267-298. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.

WITTGENSTEIN, L. (2003) Philosophische Untersuchungen. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp; (1987) Investigações Filosóficas (I) (tr. M. S. Lourenço). In Tratado Lógico-Filosófico – Investigações Filosóficas, 159-499. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. [§§ 466-490]

WITTGENSTEIN, L. (1970) Über Gewißheit. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp; (1990) Da Certeza (tr. M. E. Costa). Lisboa: Edições 70. [§§ 66-192]


SOSA, E. (1999) How to Defeat Opposition to Moore. Philosophical Perspectives 13: 141-153; (2017) Como derrotar a oposição a Moore (tr. L. H. Marques Segundo). Sképsis 15: 39-51.

BonJour, L. (2010) Recent Work on the Internalism-Externalism Controversy. In J. Dancy, E. Sosa & M. Steup (eds.) A Companion to Epistemology, 33-43. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; (2014) O trabalho recente sobre a controvérsia internismo-externismo (tr. L. H. Marques Segundo). Investigação Filosófica 5: 54-70.

PRITCHARD, D. (2012) Anti-Luck Virtue Epistemology. The Journal of Philosophy 109: 247-279; (2016) Epistemologia da virtude anti-sorte (tr. G. Gaboardy). Intuitio 9: 148-181.

WILLIAMSON, T. (2011). Knowledge First Epistemology. In S. Bernecker & D. Pritchard (eds.) The Routledge Companion to Epistemology, 208-218. New York: Routledge; (2017) Epistemologia da prioridade do conhecimento (tr. I. M. S. Vilas Bôas). Pensando 8: 338-350.

Teaching method

The teaching method adopted for the class combines exposition of the readings and commentaries on them along with discussion of student papers.

Evaluation method

Besides a written exam devoted to the first part of the course (50%), each student is required to write an essay that summarizes the themes running through the second part of the course (30%) and to prepare a review of a contemporary article or book chapter, to be chosen from a list of papers selected by the teacher, that will be presented and discussed in class (20%).

Subject matter

An Introduction to Epistemology

1. Foundations of Contemporary Epistemology

1.1. Kant's metaepistemology

1.1.1. Theory of cognition and theory of knowledge in the Critique of Pure Reason: knowledge of knowledge in the framework of the Transcendental Doctrine of Method
1.1.2. Modes of belief
1.1.3. Epistemic justification in the Jäsche Logic
1.1.4. Opining, believing and knowing
1.1.5. Varieties of certainty
1.1.6. Uncertainty and probability: the Bayesian and Kantian analyses

1.2. The Kantian legacy: psychologism and anti-psychologism

1.2.1. Husserl's rejection of relativism
1.2.2. Frege's rejection of subjectivism

1.3. The origins of analytic epistemology

1.3.1. The role of "Knowledge by Acquaintance and Knowledge by Description" in the project of Russell's Theory of Knowledge
1.3.2. The core of the multiple relation theory of judgment
1.3.3. Wittgenstein's criticism of Russell's theory of judgment
1.3.4. The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus in context: Wittgenstein and the logical positivism of the Vienna Circle

2. Main Trends in Contemporary Epistemology

2.1. Wittgenstein's reactions to Moore's common sense realism

2.1.1. Belief and knowledge in the Philosophical Investigations
2.1.2. The groundlessness of our believing in On Certainty

2.2. Challenging justificationism

2.2.1. The Gettier paradoxes and the inadequacy of the definition of knowledge as justified true belief
2.2.2. The naturalization of epistemology proposed by Quine: against a justification-centred epistemology

2.3. Contextualist-inspired post-Gettier epistemology

2.3.1. Dretske and the relevant alternatives theory: its impact on reliabilist theories
2.3.2. Epistemic contextualism: DeRose and the variantist solution to scepticism
2.3.3. Lewis' infallibilist conception of knowledge

Conclusion: the impact of hinge epistemology on the contemporary epistemological debate


I. Sosa's safety condition
II. BonJour on internalism and externalism
III. Pritchard's anti-luck virtue epistemology
IV. Williamson's knowledge-first epistemology


Programs where the course is taught: