Ceramics and Glasses Processing


Knowledge about the technological processes for the production of ceramic and glass materials. Identification and characterization of the raw materials, with particular emphasis on the industrial production of traditional ceramics. Identification, description and classification of the methods used in the processing of ceramic and glassy materials. Analysis of the main environmental aspects related with the processing of ceramics and glasses.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Maria Margarida Rolim Augusto Lima


Weekly - 4

Total - 66

Teaching language



To know the structure of different ceramic crystals, the structure of glasses and the principles for the glass formation. To know the interrelationship between structure-microstructure-properties relationships in ceramic and glasses. To assess the scientific knowledge, to analyze data with critical sense and to relate basic scientific knowledge with specific applied technological applications.


Principles of Ceramics Processig, J.S. Reed, second edition, John Wiley &Sons, 1995. Tecnologia do Processamento Cerâmico, A. Tomás da Fonseca, Universidade Aberta, 2000 .Modern Ceramics Engineering, Properties, Processing and Use in Design”, D. W. Richerson,2nd. Ed., Marcell Dekker Inc., 1992. Ceramic Processing and Sintering", M. N. Rahaman, Marcell Dekker Inc., 1995. Glass Science and and Technology- Processing I, D. R. Uhlmann andN. Kriedl, volum 2, Academic Press, 1984. Introdução à Ciência e Tecnologia do Vidro", M. Helena F. V. Fernandes, Universidade Aberta, 1999. Materials Science and Technology-Glasses and Amorphous Materials”, volume 9 edited by R. W. Cahn, P. Haasen, E. J. Kramer, VCH Publishers, 1991.The Technology of Glass and Ceramics" an Introduction ,J. Hlavac, Elsevier Science Publishers, 1983.

Teaching method

Theoretical classes, theoretical-practical classes and practical classes in the laboratory. Study visits will be made to ceramic and glass industrial units. Frequency- Gained by performing the lab essays, the practical report is subject to an oral presentation and discussion (L). 

Evaluation method

Evaluation Methods -By performing 3 mid-term tests (T1, T2 and T3) or by final exam. In case that mid-term tests are performed, in order to get exemption from final exam, the students need to have in first test (T1) at least a grade of 7.5 out of 20, and T, the grade resulting from both tests, T=(T1+T2+T3)/3, has to be at least 9.5.In case that only final exam is performed, the exam grade (E) has to be at least 9.5. For the students that perform mid-term tests, Final Grade = 0.5T+0.5L, (L) corresponds to the grade obtained from the evaluation of the lab essays. For the students that perform final exam, Final Grade = 0.5E+0.5L.

Subject matter

Powder processing (grinding and milling, methods for powder characterization). Glass technology (raw materials; typical compositions for commercial glasses; glass melting; glass fining; glass forming methods; thermal treatments (annealing and tempering). Glazes (composition; ceramic substrate-glaze compatibility; defects in glazes; colouring ceramic pigments, methods for glaze application). Shape-forming processes (pressing; slip casting; plastic methods). Drying (effect of temperature and humidity on drying rate). Ceramics densification. Kilns and furnaces (kilns for ceramic industry and kilns for glass industry).


Programs where the course is taught: