Law & Technology


The aim of this introductory course of the Master¿s is to provide students with multidisciplinary knowledge and understanding about the most relevant legal challenges of emerging technologies and the digital economy at European level. The students via seminar-style classes are becoming familiar with the recent legal literature, and regulatory and policy initiatives.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Iakovina Kindylidi, Fabrizio Esposito


Weekly - 3

Total - 36

Teaching language



Not Applicable


  • Andrew Murray, Law and the Information Society, Oxford UP, 4th ed. 2019.
  • Chris Reed, Making Laws for Cyberspace, Oxford UP, 2012.
  • Lawrence Lessig, Code 2.0, Basic Books, 2006.
  • Dan Svantesson, Solving the Internet Jurisdictional Puzzle, Oxford UP, 2017.
  • Julia Hörnle, Internet Jurisdiction Law and Practice, Oxford UP, 2021.
  • Mireille Hildebrandt, Smart Technologies and the End(s) of Law. Novel Entanglements of Law and Technology, EE Elgar, 2015.
  • Roger Brownsword, The Oxford Handbook of Law, Regulation and Technology, Oxford UP, 2017.
  • Marise Cremona, New Technologies and EU Law, Oxford UP, 2017.
  • Vanessa Mak et al. (eds), Research Handbook in Data Science and the Law, Edward Elgar 2018, 512 pp. Eric Hilgendorf and Jochen Feldle (eds.) Digitization and the Law, Nomos 2018.
  • Stefan Grundmann (ed.), European Contract Law in the Digital Age, Cambridge ¿ Antwerp ¿ Portland, Intersentia, 2018.
  • Reiner Schulze, Fryderyk Zoll, Jonathon Watson, European Contract Law, Hart, 2018.
  • Geraint Howells, Iain Ramsay, Thomas Wilhelmsson (eds.) Handbook of Research on International Consumer Law, Second Edition, Edward Elgar, 2018.
  • John J. Infranca, Nestor M. Davidson, Michèle Finck, The Cambridge Handbook of the Law of the Sharing Economy, CUP, 2018.
  • The Oxford Handbook of Intellectual Property Law, Rochelle Dreyfuss and Justine Pila (ed), Oxford University Press, 2018.
  • AA.VV., The Sharing Economy: Legal Problems of a Permutations and Combinations Society, Maria Regina Redinha, Maria Raquel Guimarães, Francisco Liberal Fernandes (ed.), Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018.
  • Hatzopoulos , Vassilis, The Collaborative Economy and EU Law, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2018.
  • AA.VV., The Platform Economy: Unravelling the Legal Status of Online Intermediaries, Bram Devolder (ed.), Intersentia Limited, 2019.
  • Alberto De Franceschi, La circolazione dei dati personali tra privacy e contratto, Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, 2017.
  • Aaron Wright e Primavera Di Filippi, Blockchain and the Law: the rise of Lex Cryptographica, Harvard UP, 2018.
  • Michèle Finck, Blockchain Regulation and Governance in Europe, Cambridge University Press 2018.
  • Alexandre Sousa Pinheiro, Privacy e proteção de dados pessoais: a construção dogmática do direito à identidade, AAFDL Editora, 2015.
  • Alexandre Sousa Pinheiro, Cristina Pimenta Coelho, e outros, Comentário ao Regulamento Geral de Proteção de Dados, Almedina, 2018.
  • Commentary on the EU General Data Protection Regulation, Lee Bygrave e Christopher Docksey, Oxford University Press, 2019.
  • Orla Lynskey, The Foundations of EU Data Protection Law, Oxford UP, 2016.
  • Hannah Yee and Fen Lim, Autonomous Vehicles and the Law, EE Elgar, 2018.
  • Zeinab Karake, Enforcing Cybersecurity in Developing and Emerging economies, EE Elgar, 2019.
  • Woodrow Barfield, Ugo Pagallo, Research Handbook on the Law of Artificial Intelligence, EE Elgar, 2018.
  • Martin Ebers, Marta Cantero Gamito, Algorithmic Governance and Governance of Algorithms, Springer, 2021.
  • Georg Borges, Christoph Sorge, Law and Technology in a Global Digital Society, Springer, 2022.
  • Mark Chinen, Law and Autonomous Machines, EE Elgar, 2019.
  • Martin Ebers, Cristina Poncibò, Mimi Zou, Contracting and Contract Law and in the Age of Artificial Intelligence, Hart, 2022.
  • Richard Whish and David Bailey, Competition Law, 10th ed, Oxford Universiyty Press, 2021.
  • Proposal for a COUNCIL DIRECTIVE laying down rules relating to the corporate taxation of a significant digital presence. 
  • Proposal for a COUNCIL DIRECTIVE on the common system of a digital services tax on revenues resulting from the provision of certain digital services.
  • Maurice Stucke, Breaking Away, OUP, 2022.
  • James Muldoom, Platform Socialism, Pluto, 2022.
  • Jan Trzaskovski, Your Privacy Is Important To Us!, Ex Tuto, 2021.
  • James Williams, Stand Out of Our Light: Freedom and Resistance in the Attention Economy, CUP, 2018.
  • Tim Wu, The Attention Economy, Knopf, 2016.
  • Thibault Schrepel, LAW + TECHNOLOGY, Stanford CodeX Working Paper, 2022.
  • Katja Seim et al, Market Design for Personal Data, Tobin Center for Economic Policy, 2022.
  • Simon Deakin and Christopher Markou, Is Law Computable? Critical Perspectives on Law and Artificial Intelligence, Hart, 2020.
  • Ed Walters, Data-Driven Law, CRC Press, 2019.
  • Paul Belleflamme et al, The Economics of Platforms, CUP, 2019.
  • Aurelia Tamò-Larrieux, Designing for Privacy and its Legal Framework: Data Protection by Design and Default for the Internet of Things, Springer, 2018.
  • Damian Tambini and Martin Moore, Regulating Platforms, OUP, 2022.

Teaching method

Theoretical-practical lectures and seminars.

Evaluation method

Written examination.

Continuous assessment: 100% (optional final exam for grade improvement):

  1. Group assignment, presentation, and classroom participation (70%);
  2. Short individual assignment (30%).

Subject matter

1.    Introduction: Regulating Technology 
1.1.    Introductory class: Overview of the topics to be analysed during the semester and evaluation methods
1.2.    Technology¿s Regulatory Challenges: Understanding basic concepts to be used in the semester (innovation, emerging technologies, types of regulation of innovation),main regulatory challenges 
1.3.    Data and The Future of Legal Professions
1.4.    Legal Thinking and Technology: some case studies

2.    Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Algorithms
2.1.    AI & Ethics: Understanding the concepts of AI and Robotics and main legal challenges; Overview of the EU AI Strategy, the Proposal of AI Act and automated decision making under the GDPR
2.2.    AI & IP: (cont. previous call); Understanding IP made by AI and protection of AI by IP
2.3.    AI & Liability: The example of Autonomous Vehicles. Understanding civil liability issues; Understanding why criminal liability is not relevant.

3.    Digital Economy
3.1    Platforms and the attention economy: Understanding main concepts and overview of the regulatory framework (including DSA, E-Commerce Directive, and Enforcement Directive)
3.2    Digital Economy & Competition Law: Understanding main concepts in the DMA; Understanding the impact of technologies in competition; Ways that competition law may assist and protect technologies and ways through which technologies may infringe competition law provisions
3.3    Data Governance: Understanding the main concepts in the DGA, Data Act and the discussion around data ownership
3.4    Digital Taxation: Understanding the impact of technologies in international corporate tax rule and the EU regulatory initiatives

4.    Web3
4.1.    Web3, Blockchain, smart contracts: Understanding main concepts; Overview of legal and regulatory challenges; Overview of the relevant applicable framework
4.2.    NFTs and contracting in Web3: Understanding main concepts via practical examples; Understanding main challenges for authors, businesses, consumers


Programs where the course is taught: