Emerging Techonologies: Governance and Regulation


This is an exploratory course, which aims to introduce students to subjects that are characterized by their high novelty and complexity, and for which the legal framework is not yet clearly defined nor, consequently, there is solid jurisprudence. This year the course will have as its theme Umbrella the Metaverse and it is in this context that more specific dimensions will be explored: avatars, NFT's and digital twins. The aim is to provide students with basic knowledge in these domains and challenge them to explore beyond the issues discussed in the course.

General characterization





Responsible teacher



Weekly - 2

Total - 24

Teaching language



Available soon


European Parliament, Metaverse - Opportunities, risks and policy implications, 2022

Cheong, B.C. 2022, ¿Avatars in the metaverse: potential legal issues and remedies¿. Int. Cybersecur. Law Rev. https://doi.org/10.1365/s43439-022-00056-9

Dowdeswell, Tracey & Nachshon (Sean) Goltz, 2022, ¿NFTs and the enclosure of the digital realm¿. Information & Communications Technology Law, Doi:10.1080/13600834.2022.2113435

Friedmann, Danny, 2022, ¿Digital Single Market, First Stop to The Metaverse:

Counterlife of Copyright Protection Wanted¿, in: Law and Economics of the Digital Transformation, Klaus Mathis and Avishalom Tor, eds. (Springer).

Goossens Sophie and Nick Breen, 2021, ¿Ownership in the Metaverse and the Great Illusion of NFTs¿, The Computer & Internet Lawyer, 38(10), pp. 3-5.

Loh, J. 2021. ¿Represent me: please! Towards an ethics of digital twins in medicine: Commentary¿. Journal of Medical Ethics, 47:412.

Teaching method

The course is structured in sessions that combine theoretical exposition with the practical solution of life cases and with the debate of controversial issues.

The teaching materials include not only the indicated references but also short videos that will be integrated to streamline the classes and give them a more practical content.

In the second part of the course, students who want continuous assessment are expected to present a brief oral presentation (15 minutes) of a topic to be agreed upon with the professor, which can be followed by a short debate (Q&A).

Evaluation method

The assessment can be carried out in two ways:

i) Final assessment: Final exam, with consultation of all materials


ii) Ongoing assessment:

        (a) Participation in classes - 20%

        (b) Exposure of the topic and respective Q&A - 40%

        (c) Written report, to be presented at the end of the semester, developing the topic of the oral presentation, between 3000 and 4000 words (not counting bibliographic references) ¿ 40%

Subject matter

1) Metaverse

2) The metaverse and¿

2.1) NFTs

2.2) Avatars

2.3) Digital twins