Intelligence and Strategic Analysis


This Curricular Unit aims to provide students with a systemic understanding of Intelligence in a rule of law environment. The rules and legal principles that govern its activity will also be addressed, defining the powers of the respective services and establishing the limits of its action in relation to citizens' rights and the performance of other security forces and services.


It is intended that students consider the importance of an Intelligence culture in the decision-making process. They will also be trained in understanding the causes and consequences of major issues that generate insecurity. The transversality of the theme will make the motto of the classes a broader and more densified concept of Security.


Based on practical examples, theoretical and conceptual tools will be provided that will enable students with a concise yet profound view of intelligence as a strategic factor in mitigating the various security threats.




(Theoretical and conceptual)

LO1: Introduce students to the contemporary debate on how the conceptual problems of Security Studies have been addressed. Consider the densification and multidimensionality of the concept of Security in a Rule of Law.


LO2:  Understand the notions of threat, risk and vulnerability in the light of a broad and densified concept of Security. Consider prospective analysis as a strategic factor in the decision-making process.


LO3: Understand what the Intelligence Studies are, the various types of Intelligence and the so-called Intelligencecycle, including an overview of the planning, collection, treatment, analysis, production and dissemination phases of information.


LO4: Consider the various Intelligence communities and the Intelligence system of the Portuguese Republic. Understand the role of intelligence in business decision.


LO5: Analyse the ethical, moral and legal dimension and control of the Intelligence activity



(Personal development)

LO6: Define abstract concepts and apply them with consistency and rigor, giving meaning to the complexity of issues involving the culture of Intelligence.


LO7: Justify your own positions with arguments based on factual issues, on topics related to issues of intelligence and security.


LO8: Familiarize students with the resources available for further research on Intelligence Studies.


OA9: Enable students to propose, analyse, debate and discuss solutions to problems related to Intelligence and Security.

General characterization





Responsible teacher



Weekly - 3

Total - 36

Teaching language

English and Portuguese


Not Applicable


Mandatory Reading:



ARQUILLA, John and RONFELDT, David (Coord.) (2001); Networks and Netwars - The Future of Terror, Crime and Militancy; Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.


BACELAR GOUVEIA, Jorge (2007); Os serviços de informações em Portugal: organização e fiscalização, in AAVV, Estudos de Direito e Segurança, Almedina, I, Coimbra, 2007, pp. 171 e ss.


BACELAR GOUVEIA, Jorge (2018); Os serviços de informações em Portugal: organização e fiscalização, in AAVV, Estudos de Direito e Segurança, Almedina, I, Coimbra, 2007, pp. 171 e ss.; Direito da Segurança, Almedina, Coimbra, 2018.


BECK, Ulrich (2008); World at Risk; Cambridge: Polity Press.


BREAKSPEAR, Alan (2013); A New Definition of Intelligence; Intelligence and National Security 28, no. 5. (October): 678-693.


CARDOSO, Pedro As Informações em Portugal, 2ª ed., Gradiva, Lisboa, 2004.


Constituição da República Portuguesa


ERWIN, Marshall Curtis (2013); Intelligence Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service RL33539. (August).


FAGERSTEN, Bjorn (2016); For Your Eyes Only: Intelligence and European security; EU Institute for Security Studies.


FERREIRA, Arménio Marques, O Sistema de Informações da República Portuguesa, in AAVV, Estudos de Direito e Segurança, Almedina, I, Coimbra, 2007, pp. 67 e ss.


Global Strategic Trends The Future Starts Today (2018); Ministry of Defense, UK; pp. 124-150.


HONING, Arthur (2007); A New Direction for Theory-Building in Intelligence Studies; International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence20, no. 4: 669-716 


HULNICK, Arthur (2007); What's Wrong with The Intelligence Cycle In Strategic Intelligence - 2: The Intelligence Cycle: The Flow of Secret Information from Overseas to the Highest Councils of Government, by LOCH K. Johnson; Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. 


JOHNSON, Loch K. (2003). Preface to a Theory of Strategic Intelligence; International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 16, no. 4: 638- 663.


Lei da Entidade de Fiscalização do Segredo de Estado*


Lei do Segredo de Estado*


Lei Orgânica do Sistema de Informações da República Portuguesa.


Lei-Quadro do Sistema de Informações da República Portuguesa.


LILLBACKA, Ralf G. V. 2013. "Realism, Constructivism, and Intelligence Analysis." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 26: 304-331. **


MILLER, T. David (2015); Security 2045: Assessing the Future Security Environment and Implications for Defense Policymakers; CSIS, November 2015.


Modelo Conceptual; Perspectivas - Portuguese Journal of Political Science and International Relations; no 8.


MULLER-WILLE, Bjorn (2004); For our eyes only? Shaping an intelligence community within the EU; Occasional Papers, nr. 50; EU Institute for Security Studies.


OMAND, David (2006); Ethical guidelines in using secret intelligence for public security ; Cambridge Review of International Affairs 19 (4): 613-28.


OMAND, David and PHYTHIAN, Mark (2013); Ethics and intelligence: A debate; International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 26 (1): 38-63.


PATHÉ DUARTE, Felipe (2020); « Non-Kinetic Hybrid Threats in Europe the Portuguese Case Study (2017-18)»; Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy (special issue: Government at risk: cyber-security, cyber-threat, propaganda, and government).


SHAW, Rohit (2013). OSINT (Open-Source Intelligence).INFOSEC Institute. 


WHALEY, Kevin J. (2005); A Knowledge Matrix Modeling of the Intelligence Cycle Thesis;  (Chapters 1 & 2).


Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community (2019); Director of National Intelligence (US).




Recommend Reading:



AAVV, Enciclopédia de Direito e Segurança (coord. Jorge Bacelar Gouveia e Sofia Santos), Almedina, Coimbra, 2015


AAVV, International Intelligence Cooperation and Accountability (ed. Hans Born, Ian Leigh e Aidan Wills) (2012), Routledge, New York.


AAVV, La Inteligencia como disciplina científica (Coord. de Fernando Velasco, Diego Navarro e Rubén Arcos) (2010), Plaza y Valdes Editores, Madrid.


BEN-ISRAËL, Issac (2004); Philosophie du Renseignement: Logique et Morale de lEspionage, LÉclat, Paris.


JOHNSON, Loch K. (2007), Handbook of Intelligence Studies, Routledge, New York, 2007. 


KEEGAN, John (1993); Intelligence in War. Knowledge of the Enemy from Napoleon to Al- Qaeda; Random House.


LOWENTHAL, Mark M. (2017); Intelligence from Secrets to Policy, 7ª ed., Los Angeles.


NYE, Joseph; Compreender os Conflitos Internacionais Uma Introdução à Teoria e História; Lisboa: Gradiva, 2002.


OMAND, David and PHYTIAN, Mark (2018); Principled spying: The ethics of secret intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


PATHÉ DUARTE, Felipe (2013); Portugal como Actor e Produtor de Segurança Internacional; in O Conceito Estratégico de Defesa Nacional 2013: Contributos e Debate Público; Lisboa: IDN. *


SCOTT, Len and JACKSON, Peter (2004); The Study of Intelligence Theory and Practice; Intelligence and National Security 19, no. 2: 139-169.

Teaching method

Modular training on a seminar basis on topics related to significant issues on Intelligence Studies. It is intended that they are debated and examined in some depth and that students actively participate in the discussions that will take place during the sessions. The discussions should be based on the suggested readings for each topic and events analysed, essentially, by media source. The teaching-learning process is based on theoretical-practical classes, where a participatory methodology and analysis of case studies will be privilege.

Evaluation method

Essay: Individual work (about 3500 words, - excluding footnotes and bibliography). It must have a cover, include title and author identification on the first page, uniform footnotes and final bibliography. The essay seeks to lead students to develop, test and evaluate their conclusions about what is taught in the sessions. It should be an analytical exercise and not a mere description.

Or Written exam.


FINAL GRADE: The grade will be based on the participation and attendance of students in the sessions (10%), and in the essay or written exam (90%).

Subject matter

T1: Security Studies. Security and the role of the State. The densification and multidimensionality of the Security concept. Risk Society Theory, Security and Intelligence (U. Beck).


T2: The definition and conception of contemporary security threats. The perception of risk and vulnerability. Introduction to the Intelligence Studies and prospective analysis.


T3: The various types of intelligence. The collection, processing and analysis of information. The intelligence cycle.


T4:Intelligence from a historical-compared perspective. The organization of the Intelligence System of the Portuguese Republic.


T5: The ethical dimension and the control of Intelligence activity. State secrets and classified and sensitive information.