Security, Governance and the Rule of Law


The world is becoming more connected. The forces of Globalization have provided many opportunities for the world but have also created new threats and challenges. This course will examine the main issues we now face in a global world, particularly, in the field of security. The world is becoming more connected. The forces of Globalization have provided many opportunities for the world but have also created new threats and challenges. This course will examine the main issues we now face in a global world, particularly, in the field of security.


LO1: Provide knowledge about the evolution of the concept of Security and the importance it is currently facing. Understand some paradigmatic concepts in the scope of Security Studies. Understand what are the main threats to Security, the State and the Rule of Law. Students will have an appreciation of the impact globalization is having on internal security issues including: new threats, new challenges, new trends, International Law and human rights, war, new weapons, refugees...


LO2: Provide students with fundamental knowledge about of the governance system of Security that is assumed as one of the purposes of the rule of law as they are shaped by the Constitution as a great law, establishing a balance between the public powers and at the same time considering the limits that citizens' rights impose on the performance of the various security structures. Students will have a deeper understanding of the nature of the Portuguese security system and the global institutions through which they interact


LO3: Train students with the various approaches, the main concepts and terminologies within the scope of Security and Law Studies. Familiarize the student with the history, evolution and contemporary aspects of Security. Provide tools that allow an independent and critical analysis of the various challenges and dynamics of the significant issues of Law and Security.


(Personal development)

LO4: Define abstract concepts and apply them with consistency and rigour, giving meaning to the complexity of issues involving Law and Security. Justify own positions with arguments based on factual issues, on topics related to Security, threats to Security and Law and Security.


LO5: Familiarize the student with the resources available for further research on Security Studies and Law and Security. Enable the student to propose, analyze, debate and discuss solutions to global security, state and constitution problems. Develop written and oral communication, as well as students' argumentative skills.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

José Fontes


Weekly - 3

Total - 36

Teaching language

English and Portuguese


Not Applicable


(further reading will be advised / distributed throughout the sessions)


  • AA.VV. ; National Security, Civil Liberties and the War on Terror, Prometheus Books, New York, 2011.
  • AA.VV.; Conceito Estratégico de Defesa Nacional 2013 ¿ Contributos e Debate Público; Instituto da Defesa Nacional; Lisboa:  Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda, 2013.
  • AA.VV.; Enciclopédia de Direito e Segurança (coord. de Jorge Bacelar Gouveia e Sofia Santos), Almedina, Coimbra, 2015.
  • AA.VV.; Estudos de Direito e Segurança (org. de Bacelar Gouveia): I vol., Almedina, Coimbra, 2007; II vol., Almedina, Coimbra, 2012.
  • AA.VV.; Leis de Direito da Segurança, 3ª ed., Quid Juris, Lisboa, 2016.
  • AGAMBEN, Giorgio, Estado de exceção, Edições 70, Lisboa, 2010.
  • ARENDT, Hannah; Da Violência; trad. Port.; Brasília: Editora Universidade de Brasília, 1985.
  • BALDWIN, D.A; ¿The Concept of Security¿; Review of International Studies, 23: 5-26, 1997.
  • BECK, Ulrich, World at Risk; Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008.
  • BUZAN, B. et al.Security: A New Framework for Analysis; Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998.
  • FUKUYAMA, Francis; A construção de Estados, Gradiva, Lisboa, 2006; As origens da ordem política, D. Quixote, Lisboa, 2012.
  • GOUVEIA, Jorge Bacelar; Manual de Direito Constitucional, II vols., 6ª ed., Almedina, Coimbra, 2016; Direito Constitucional de Timor-Leste, IDiLP, Lisboa-Díli, 2012; Direito Constitucional de Angola, IDiLP, Lisboa-Luanda, 2014; Direito Constitucional de Moçambique, IDiLP, Lisboa-Maputo, 2015.
  • LOURENÇO, Nelson et al. (Coord.); Segurança Horizonte 2025: Um conceito estratégico de Segurança Interna; Lisboa: Ed. Colibri, 2018.
  • MARQUES GUEDES, Armando e ELIAS, Luís; Controlos Remotos ¿ Dimensões Externas da Segurança Interna em Portugal; Coimbra: Almedina, 2010.
  • NOGUEIRA, J.M.F.; Pensar a Segurança e Defesa; Lisboa: Ed.Cosmos/IDN, 2005.
  • PATHÉ DUARTE, Felipe; Violência Política: Do Estado à Subversão do Estado - Análise sobre um Modelo Conceptual¿; Perspectivas - Portuguese Journal of Political Science and International Relations; nº 8, 2013.  
  • PEREIRA, Rui; Segurança e Constituição, in AAVV, Estudos de Direito e Segurança (org. de Bacelar Gouveia), II vol., Almedina, Coimbra, 2012.
  • PINTO, Jaime Nogueira; Ideologia e Razão de Estado uma História do Poder, Civilização Editora, Porto, 2013.
  • RICHARDS, Julien; A guide to National Security threats, responses & strategies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2012.
  • TOMÉ, Luís; Segurança e Complexo de Segurança: Conceitos Operacionais¿; in; Vol. 1, nº 1, Outono, 2010. 
  • WALT, Steve, The Renaissance of Security Studies, in International Studies Quarterly, 35(2), 1991
  • WEBER, Max; A Política como Vocação; in Gerth, H. H. E Mills, C. Wright (coord.); Max Weber Ensaios de Sociologia; trad. Port.; Rio de Janeiro: Ed. Zahar; 1979.



  • CRP
  • Lei do Estado de Sítio e do Estado de Emergência
  • Estatuto do Provedor de Justiça





Teaching method

Modular training on a seminar basis on topics related to significant issues related with security, governance and the rule of law. It is intended that they are debated and examined in some depth and that students actively participate in the discussions that will take place during the sessions. The discussions should be based on readings for each topic and events analyzed, essentially, by media source.

The teaching-learning process is based on theoretical-practical classes, where a participatory methodology and field visits will be privilege. 

Evaluation method


Essay or Final Exam                              

Essay: Students will be expected to write an essay (individual work) on a topic related with the subject/course. The essay should be 15-20 pages (except the cover page, index and bibliography) using proper references and in a formal essay style. The essay seeks to lead students to develop, test and evaluate their conclusions about what is taught in the sessions. It should be an analytical exercise and not a mere description.

The topic of the assignment as well as its content must be approved by the Professor. The Professor or the Master Manager can actively help during the semester with the topics, as well as with the search for scientifically sound bibliography.

Whenever there is a need and time, in the second part of lessons, the Master Manager will individually go through all students, or those who need it, to assist with assignments.

Final Exam: Students will be expected to develop 2 topics.


FINAL GRADE: The grade will be based on the participation and attendance of students in the sessions (15%), and in the essay or written exam (85%).


Plagiarism Detection Tool

Normally, professors will be required to submit their course essays to the University¿s plagiarism detection tool for a review of textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In this course your essay(s) will all be submitted through the plagiarism detection tool.

Academic Honesty  

Students must be careful to cite their work properly as plagiarism is a serious offense and will not be tolerated. You cannot take other people¿s ideas as your own. This includes both quotations and general ideas.


Plagiarism is an academic offence with a severe penalty.

It is essential that you understand what plagiarism is and that you do not commit it.  In essence, it is the theft of the thoughts or words of others, without giving proper credit.  You must put others¿ words in quotation marks and cite your source(s).  You must give citations when using others¿ ideas, even if those ideas are paraphrased in your own words.  Plagiarism is unacceptable in a university.

The following are some examples of plagiarism:

  • Submitting as your own an assignment written by someone else.
  • Quoting an author without indicating the source of the words.
  • Using words, sentences, or paragraphs written by someone else and failing to place quotation marks around the material and reference the source and author. Using either quotation marks or reference alone is not sufficient. Both must be used!
  • Adapting an author¿s ideas or theme and using it as your own without referencing the original source.
  • Seeking assistance from a friend or family member in respect to work you claim as your own.

Plagiarism is cheating.  It is considered a serious offence against intellectual honesty and intellectual property.

Subject matter

The class will explore two main topics:


T1. Security and Rule of Law: new challenges and new threats - Prospective

- International law and war

- Concrete challenges to the protection of personal data

- AI in the field of security

- Et alii


T2. Security and Governance:

The Internal Security System (SSI)

- Supervision and police control system (IGAI)

- Proximity/Community Policing (PSP)

- Led-intelligence policing (GNR)

- Immigration, borders and internal security (SEF)

- Criminal Police/Judicial Police and complex criminality (PJ)

- Et alii